Webview in Flutter – Part 2

By | March 28, 2019

Welcome to another Webview tutorial,

In this tutorial we will see what are the other API’s available in the webview_flutter plugin. Read the part-1 of this tutorial to get an introduction on webview in flutter.
 

Webview Flutter

Webview Flutter


 
Watch Video Tutorial
 

 
We will be implementing the below functionalities in our webview.
 

  • Show User Agent
  • List Cookies
  • Clear Cookies
  • Add To Cache
  • List Cache
  • Clear Cache
  • Navigation Delegate

First we will write the functions that implements all the above functionalities

Show User Agent

  void _onShowUserAgent(
      WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    // Send a message with the user agent string to the Toaster JavaScript channel we registered
    // with the WebView.
    controller.evaluateJavascript(
        'Toaster.postMessage("User Agent: " + navigator.userAgent);');
  }

List Cookies

  void _onListCookies(
      WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    final String cookies =
        await controller.evaluateJavascript('document.cookie');
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(SnackBar(
      content: Column(
        mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.end,
        mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
        children: <Widget>[
          const Text('Cookies:'),
          _getCookieList(cookies),
        ],
      ),
    ));
  }

Clear Cookies

  void _onClearCookies(BuildContext context) async {
    final bool hadCookies = await cookieManager.clearCookies();
    String message = 'There were cookies. Now, they are gone!';
    if (!hadCookies) {
      message = 'There are no cookies.';
    }
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(SnackBar(
      content: Text(message),
    ));
  }

Add To Cache

  void _onAddToCache(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    await controller.evaluateJavascript(
        'caches.open("test_caches_entry"); localStorage["test_localStorage"] = "dummy_entry";');
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(const SnackBar(
      content: Text('Added a test entry to cache.'),
    ));
  }

List Cache

  void _onListCache(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    await controller.evaluateJavascript('caches.keys()'
        '.then((cacheKeys) => JSON.stringify({"cacheKeys" : cacheKeys, "localStorage" : localStorage}))'
        '.then((caches) => Toaster.postMessage(caches))');
  }

Clear Cache

  void _onClearCache(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    await controller.clearCache();
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(const SnackBar(
      content: Text("Cache cleared."),
    ));
  }
 

Navigation Delegate

Here we will listen for each webview navigation and we can block or modify the url based on the request.

  void _onNavigationDelegateExample(
      WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    final String contentBase64 =
        base64Encode(const Utf8Encoder().convert(kNavigationExamplePage));
    controller.loadUrl('data:text/html;base64,$contentBase64');
  }

Get Cookies List

  Widget _getCookieList(String cookies) {
    if (cookies == null || cookies == '""') {
      return Container();
    }
    final List<String> cookieList = cookies.split(';');
    final Iterable<Text> cookieWidgets =
        cookieList.map((String cookie) => Text(cookie));
    return Column(
      mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.end,
      mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
      children: cookieWidgets.toList(),
    );
  }
}

Navigation Delegate implementation

 @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return new Scaffold(
      appBar: new AppBar(
        title: new Text('Webview Demo'),
        actions: <Widget>[
          NavigationControls(_controller.future),
        ],
      ),
      body: Builder(
        builder: (BuildContext context) {
          return WebView(
            initialUrl: 'https://flutter.dev',
            javascriptMode: JavascriptMode.unrestricted,
            onWebViewCreated: (WebViewController webViewController) {
              _controller.complete(webViewController);
            },
            javascriptChannels: <JavascriptChannel>[
              snackbarJavascriptChannel(context),
            ].toSet(),
            navigationDelegate: (NavigationRequest request) {
              return NavigationDecision.navigate;
            },
          );
        },
      ),
...

Complete Code

import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:webview_flutter/webview_flutter.dart';
import 'dart:async';
import 'dart:convert';

const String examplepage = '''
      <!DOCTYPE html><html>
      <head><title>Navigation Delegate Example</title></head>
      <body>
      <p>
      The navigation delegate is set to block navigation to the youtube website.
      </p>
      <ul>
      <ul><a href="https://www.youtube.com/">https://www.youtube.com/</a></ul>
      <ul><a href="https://www.google.com/">https://www.google.com/</a></ul>
      </ul>
      </body>
      </html>
      ''';

class WebviewDemo extends StatefulWidget {
  final String title;

  WebviewDemo({Key key, this.title}) : super(key: key);

  @override
  State<StatefulWidget> createState() {
    return _WebviewDemoState();
  }
}

JavascriptChannel snackbarJavascriptChannel(BuildContext context) {
  return JavascriptChannel(
    name: 'SnackbarJSChannel',
    onMessageReceived: (JavascriptMessage message) {
      Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(SnackBar(
        content: Text(message.message),
      ));
    },
  );
}

class _WebviewDemoState extends State<WebviewDemo> {
  //
  final Completer<WebViewController> _controller =
      Completer<WebViewController>();

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return new Scaffold(
      appBar: new AppBar(
        title: new Text('Webview Demo'),
        actions: <Widget>[
          NavigationControls(_controller.future),
          SampleMenu(_controller.future)
        ],
      ),
      body: Builder(
        builder: (BuildContext context) {
          return WebView(
            initialUrl: 'http://flutter.dev',
            javascriptMode: JavascriptMode.unrestricted,
            onWebViewCreated: (WebViewController webViewController) {
              _controller.complete(webViewController);
            },
            javascriptChannels: <JavascriptChannel>[
              snackbarJavascriptChannel(context),
            ].toSet(),
            navigationDelegate: (NavigationRequest request) {
              if (request.url.startsWith("https://www.youtube.com")) {
                print("Blocking navigation");
                return NavigationDecision.prevent;
              }
              return NavigationDecision.navigate;
            },
          );
        },
      ),
    );
  }
}

enum MenuOptions {
  showUserAgent,
  listCookies,
  clearCookies,
  addToCache,
  listCache,
  clearCache,
  navigationDelegate
}

class SampleMenu extends StatelessWidget {
  SampleMenu(this.controller);
  final Future<WebViewController> controller;
  final CookieManager cookieManager = CookieManager();

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return FutureBuilder<WebViewController>(
      future: controller,
      builder:
          (BuildContext context, AsyncSnapshot<WebViewController> controller) {
        return PopupMenuButton<MenuOptions>(
          itemBuilder: (BuildContext context) => <PopupMenuItem<MenuOptions>>[
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.showUserAgent,
                  child: const Text('Show User Agent'),
                  enabled: controller.hasData,
                ),
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.listCookies,
                  child: const Text('List Cookies'),
                ),
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.clearCookies,
                  child: const Text('Clear Cookies'),
                ),
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.addToCache,
                  child: const Text('Add to Cache'),
                ),
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.listCache,
                  child: const Text('List Cache'),
                ),
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.clearCache,
                  child: const Text('Clear Cache'),
                ),
                PopupMenuItem(
                  value: MenuOptions.navigationDelegate,
                  child: const Text('Navigation Delegate Demo'),
                )
              ],
          onSelected: (MenuOptions value) {
            switch (value) {
              case MenuOptions.showUserAgent:
                showUserAgent(controller.data, context);
                break;
              case MenuOptions.listCookies:
                listCookies(controller.data, context);
                break;
              case MenuOptions.clearCookies:
                clearCookies(controller.data, context);
                break;
              case MenuOptions.addToCache:
                addToCache(controller.data, context);
                break;
              case MenuOptions.listCache:
                listCache(controller.data, context);
                break;
              case MenuOptions.clearCache:
                clearCache(controller.data, context);
                break;
              case MenuOptions.navigationDelegate:
                navigationDelegateDemo(controller.data, context);
                break;
              default:
            }
          },
        );
      },
    );
  }

  navigationDelegateDemo(
      WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    final String contentbase64 =
        base64Encode(const Utf8Encoder().convert(examplepage));
    controller.loadUrl('data:text/html;base64,$contentbase64');
  }

  addToCache(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    await controller.evaluateJavascript(
        'caches.open("test_caches_entry"); localStorage["test_localStorage"] = "dummy_entry";');
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(
      const SnackBar(
        content: Text('Added a test entry to cache'),
      ),
    );
  }

  void listCache(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    await controller.evaluateJavascript(
        'caches.keys().then((cacheKeys) => JSON.stringify({"cacheKeys": cacheKeys, "localStorage": localStorage })).then((caches) => SnackbarJSChannel.postMessage(caches))');
  }

  void clearCache(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    await controller.clearCache();
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(
      const SnackBar(
        content: Text('Cache Cleared'),
      ),
    );
  }

  listCookies(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    final String cookies =
        await controller.evaluateJavascript('document.cookie');
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(
      SnackBar(
        content: Column(
          mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.end,
          mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
          children: <Widget>[const Text('Cookies:'), getCookies(cookies)],
        ),
      ),
    );
  }

  Widget getCookies(String cookies) {
    if (null == cookies || cookies.isEmpty) {
      return Container();
    }
    final List<String> cookieList = cookies.split(';');
    final Iterable<Text> cookieWidgets = cookieList.map(
      (String cookie) => Text(cookie),
    );
    return Column(
      mainAxisAlignment: MainAxisAlignment.end,
      mainAxisSize: MainAxisSize.min,
      children: cookieWidgets.toList(),
    );
  }

  void clearCookies(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) async {
    final bool hadCookies = await cookieManager.clearCookies();
    String message = 'There are no cookies';
    Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(
      SnackBar(
        content: Text(message),
      ),
    );
  }

  showUserAgent(WebViewController controller, BuildContext context) {
    controller.evaluateJavascript(
        'SnackbarJSChannel.postMessage("User Agent: " + navigator.userAgent);');
  }
}

class NavigationControls extends StatelessWidget {
  const NavigationControls(this._webViewControllerFuture);
  final Future<WebViewController> _webViewControllerFuture;

  @override
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return FutureBuilder(
      future: _webViewControllerFuture,
      builder:
          (BuildContext context, AsyncSnapshot<WebViewController> snapshot) {
        final bool webViewReady =
            snapshot.connectionState == ConnectionState.done;
        final WebViewController controller = snapshot.data;
        return Row(
          children: <Widget>[
            IconButton(
              icon: const Icon(Icons.arrow_back_ios),
              onPressed: !webViewReady
                  ? null
                  : () async {
                      if (await controller.canGoBack()) {
                        controller.goBack();
                      } else {
                        Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(
                          const SnackBar(
                            content: Text("No Back history Item"),
                          ),
                        );
                      }
                    },
            ),
            IconButton(
              icon: const Icon(Icons.arrow_forward_ios),
              onPressed: !webViewReady
                  ? null
                  : () async {
                      if (await controller.canGoForward()) {
                        controller.goForward();
                      } else {
                        Scaffold.of(context).showSnackBar(
                          const SnackBar(
                            content: Text("No Forward history Item"),
                          ),
                        );
                      }
                    },
            ),
            IconButton(
              icon: const Icon(Icons.refresh),
              onPressed: !webViewReady
                  ? null
                  : () async {
                      controller.reload();
                    },
            )
          ],
        );
      },
    );
  }
}

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